Standard treatment strategy for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema includes noninvasive positive pressure ventilation as an alternative treatment for patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema who require endotracheal intubation. Even in the improvement of hypoxemia, the beneficial effects depend on preload and afterload reduction with positive pressure ventilation. Although several strategies have been proposed for mask fitting problems, patient dependent ventilation mask compliance is one of the major critical problems. In our institution, intravenous morphine hydrochloride has been used for load reduction and sedative effects in such patients, achieving favorable clinical outcomes.
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